Application: - Extensively used in oil gase industry … If you find a lot number with a filling-code such as 594911, 378097, 357391) as the active material, was described by Henry Round as displaying a “bright glow”.1,2 Lighting ...Alexander Birkel, Kristin A. Denault, Nathan C. George, Ram SeshadriMaterial Matters, Volume 7, Number 2, 22–27Keywords: Capillary electrophoresis, Chromatin immunoprecipitation, Combustion, Ligands, Microwave synthesis, Sol-gel, Substitutions, Explore our portfolio of well characterized, competitively priced products for your materials synthesis needs. In some cases, a COA may not be available on-line. Find here online price details of companies selling Calcium Chloride Anhydrous Powder. These Site Use Terms MAY CAUSE EYE, SKIN AND RESPIRATORY TRACT IRRITATION. Calcium chloride 10043-52-4 60-100 % 3. Each mL contains 100 mg (1.4 mEq/mL) of Calcium Chloride, dihydrate (1.4 mEq each of Ca++ and Cl−) in water for injection. Long term exposure of calcium chloride solution upon a zinc coated galvanized iron vessel caused slow evolution of hydrogen which ignited and exploded [Bretherick, 5th Ed., 1995]. Ph Eur. It is a key component in deicers as it melts snow and ice. Name 1M Calcium Chloride Solution Product number C0478 1.2 Relevant identified uses of the substance or mixture and uses advised against Relevant identified uses General use 1.3 Details of the supplier of the safety data sheet Teknova 2290 Bert Dr. Hollister California 95023 United States Telephone: 831-637-1100 Telefax: 831-637-2355 WGK: 1 UN: - 909.026. Pricing & availability is not currently available. Calcium chloride dihydrate (CAS No. Calcium chloride dihydrate - ACS, Reag. Long term exposure of calcium chloride solution upon a zinc coated galvanized iron vessel caused slow evolution of hydrogen which ignited and exploded [Bretherick, 5th Ed., 1995]. Calcium chloride is an odorless, white, crystalline solid compound that is highly soluble in water. Ingestion Call a POISON CENTER or doctor if you feel unwell. ... UN number UN Number : - 14.2. number 09019TO without the first two letters. Sigma-Aldrich Products are sold exclusively through Sigma-Aldrich, Inc. The sales office is in Johannesburg & the warehousing & distribution network are in all major districts in South Africa. Calcium chloride anhydrous, powder, ≥97% CAS Number 10043-52-4. More important for COO: enter a "0" if only two numbers are 10% Calcium Chloride Injection, USP is a sterile, nonpyrogenic, hypertonic solution. UN Nos 2880, 2208, 1748, 3485, 3486 and 3487. For price consultation, contact us. Bulk Density Chart ANVAL VALVES PVT LTD. Material Lbs/cu.ft Kgs/cu.m ... Calcium Chloride 60 961 Calcium Fluoride 102 1634 Calcium Hydroxide 40 641 ... Epoxy Powder 49 785 Ferric Chloride 43 689 Ferric Sulphate 61 977 Ferro Silicate 78 1250 Ferro Silicon 87 1394 $59.98 $ 59. 1:164, 165 1956]. Our local stores do not honor online pricing. Calcium chloride pellets concentrated ice melter is hygroscopic, it draws moisture form the air and ice, which enables it to work when other de-icers cannot. 10035-04-8) SDS. Unlike some other products that blend various ice melting ingredients, driveway heat is 100% of the most effective de-icer available. BK Powder, CCH, hy-chlor and Chloride of lime or Chlorinated lime. Calcium Chloride,Dihydrate Created by Global Safety Management, Inc. -Tel: 1-813-435-5161 - www.gsmsds.com SECTION 1 : Identification of the substance/mixture and of the supplier Product name : Calcium Chloride,Dihydrate Manufacturer/Supplier Trade name: Manufacturer/Supplier Article number… PubChem Substance ID 24873292. Get medical attention if respiratory irritation develops or if breathing becomes difficult. If you find a lot number with a filling-code such as Component Percent [%] CAS Number Calcium chloride > 83 - < 87 10043-52-4 Water > 8 - < 14 7732-18-5 Potassium Chloride > 2 - < 3 7447-40-7 Sodium Chloride > 1 - < 2 7647-14-5 Notes: Potassium chloride and sodium chloride are impurities from the naturally-occurring source material, brine solution. Calcium Chloride Supplier and Distributor, CAS#: 10043-52-4. following the words 'Lot' or 'Batch'. Identification of the substance/mixture and of the company/undertaking 1.1. PRODUCT AND COMPANY IDENTIFICATION Product Name: Calcium Chloride, Anhydrous Powder Technical Synonyms/Generic Names: None Product Number: 1090 Product Use: Industrial, Manufacturing or Laboratory use Manufacturer: Columbus Chemical Industries, Inc. Eur., Supelco® ... CAS Number: 10043-52-4 EINECS: 233-140-8 UN: 0000 REACH: 01-2119494219-28 Merck Index: 13,01660 No other ice melter out performs calcium chloride pellets. Calcium (atomic symbol: Ca, atomic number: 20) is a Block S, Group 2, Period 4 element with an atomic weight of 40.078. in front of the letter e.g. The number of electrons in each of Calcium's shells is [2, 8, 8, 2] and its electron configuration is [Ar] 4s 2 . Calcium chloride will corrode most metals exposed to air; attack aluminium (and its alloys) and yellow brass; react with sulphuric acid to form hydrogen chloride which is 13/06/2012 4/6 Calcium carbide incandesces with chlorine, bromine, or iodine at 245, 350, or 305°C., respectively, [Mellor, 1946, Vol. Calcium Chloride Powder is generally immediately available in most volumes. Nos. EC Number 233-140-8. Read about company. Hawkins is where to buy Calcium Chloride. No other ice melter out performs calcium chloride pellets. powder Appearance of Solution passes test Insoluble Matter 0.01 % Linear Formula CaCl 2. Calcium chloride has a salty taste and is the main ingredient in many types of food items including snacks. Product name CALCIUM CHLORIDE Chemical Name calcium chloride Chemical formula Ca-Cl2 Other means of identification Not Available CAS number 10043-52-4 Relevant identified uses of the substance or mixture and uses advised against Relevant identified uses Used as a drying, dehydrating, desiccating agent for organic liquids, gases. The pediatric dosage in hypocalcemic disorders ranges from 2.7 to 5.0 mg/kg hydrated calcium chloride (or 0.136 to 0.252 mEq elemental calcium per kg, or 0.027 to 0.05 mL of 10% Calcium Chloride … CA-CL-02-P.AHYD , CA- This includes salts, deposition precursors, metals, alloys, ceramics and monomers, polym...Keywords: Ceramics, Deposition, Materials Science. 1,620 calcium chloride bulk products are offered for sale by suppliers on Alibaba.com, of which chloride accounts for 36%. All Rights Reserved. Shreeji Pharma International - Offering White Beads Or Powder Pharmaceutical Calcium Chloride, Grade Standard: BP/USP, Drum at Rs 25/kilogram in Vadodara, Gujarat. NACRES NA.21 It is provided in a 10 mL Unit of Use Syringe to facilitate prompt intravenous injection. bags. Description of first aid measures Inhalation Move affected person to fresh air at once. As such, it should only be carried under that name and with the appropriate UN Number. Avantor ®, a Fortune 500 company, is a leading global provider of mission-critical products and services to customers in the biopharma, healthcare, education & government, and advanced technologies & applied materials industries.Our portfolio is used in virtually every stage of the most important research, development and production activities in the industries we serve. EC Number 233-140-8. Use with adequate ventilation. NACRES NA.23 Advanced Inorganic Materials for Solid State Lighting. STBB0728K9 - enter the lot number STBB0728 without the filling-code UN 1701 to UN 1800. If you find a lot number such as TO09019TO - enter the lot Calcium chloride is commonly sold as a white crystalline substance that comes in, either a powdered form or a granular form. Product identifier Calcium chloride anhydrous powder Substance / mixture substance Chemical name Calcium chloride anhydrous CAS number 10043-52-4 Index number 017-013-00-2 EC (EINECS) number 233-140-8 1.2. MDL number MFCD00010903. CAS No: 10035-04-8; Molecular Weight: 110.984; Molecular Formula: CACL 2; Names and Identifiers Properties Safety and Handling Computational chemical data 444 Suppliers Melts ice and snow down to temperatures of -25°F, Safe to use on concrete and vegetation when used correctly, This concentrated formula allows for more then 4 times the coverage of ordinary rock salt. UN number-Proper shipping name: UN classfication Subsidiary hazard class Packing group Marine pollutant (Sea) Not applicable Transport in bulk according to Annex II of MARPOL 73/78 and the IBC Code No information available IATA Not regulated _____ Page 5 / 6 W01W0103-2503 JGHEEN Calcium Chloride Dihydrate Avoid contact with eyes, skin and clothing. Calcium Chloride is used extensively in oil industry, for treating roads in winter and cement paints manufacturing. Hawkins Industrial Group supplies bulk and packaged industrial chemicals to the upper Midwest. Bulk solid calcium chloride may be unloaded and transported by a number of different methods, including drag chains, screw conveyors, pneumatic conveyors, bucket … Bioaccumulation Calcium chloride does not bioaccumulate. MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE (MAG) – Flake & Pellet MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE. View catalogue prices, chemical data, technical specifications and MSDS documents. You can also view suppliers in Australia, NZ or the UK. -021. Dry, or anhydrous, calcium chloride is referred to by Hill Brothers’ trade name as Hi 94.Hill Brothers offers two different dry products as Hi 94 Prill and Hi 94 Powder.Both products are high purity manufactured calcium chloride with a typical CaCl 2 content of 94% and both meet the ASTM D-98 specification for Ready-Mix Concrete. MDL number MFCD00010903. Bromine trifluoride rapidly attacks calcium chloride [Mellor 2 Supp. Calcium chloride anhydrous powder SECTION 1: Identification of the substance/mixture and of the company/undertaking 1.1. Because the anhydrous salt is hygroscopic, it is used as to you upon submission of this form. Hawkins carries high purity, Calcium Chloride. you enter 062K1064. Product identifier ... Evaporates practically not at 20°C; will be as a powder quicky squirt a dangerous concentration in the air. Calcium Chloride Suppliers USA. Type in Product Names, Product Numbers, or CAS Numbers to see suggestions. The powdered mixture of the acetylide and iron oxide and iron chloride burns violently upon ignition, producing molten iron. Nanoscale elemental powders and suspensions, as alternative high surface area forms, may be considered. Calcium Chloride is available in different product presentations, depending on the grade: CaCl 2 94% nutritional grade CaCl 2 94% Prills grade/Briners/Powder CaCl 2 94% Deicing grade; 50 and 55 lb. Molecular Weight 110.98 . 05427ES–021 - enter the lot number 05427ES without the filling-code MDL number MFCD00010903. SAFETY DATA SHEET Date Printed: 09/05/2020 Date Revised: 05/15/2015 SECTION 1. Assay (CaCl 2 x 2H 2 O) 99.0 - 103.00 % Identity passes test Appearance fine, white crys. Calcium chloride anhydrous, powder, 99.99% trace metals basis Synonym: Calcium dichloride CAS Number 10043-52-4. Keep container closed. Wash thoroughly after handling. Seek medical attention. May react vigorously with oxidizing materials. The properties of calcium chloride make it extremely useful. It is a white coloured crystalline solid at room temperature, and it is highly soluble in water. This product is a/an white powder. These compounds are mainly used for de-icing and dust control. Coalescentrum Inc. supplies Calcium Chloride flakes, pellets, powder and granules in the following packaging types: 1000kg per bag, 25kg per bag, and 50lbs per bag. EC Number 233-140-8. IDENTIFICATION Product Name: Calcium Chloride Anhydrous, Powder Product Number: All applicable American Elements product codes, e.g. | Privacy. Calcium Chloride Suppliers USA. Bromine trifluoride rapidly attacks calcium chloride [Mellor 2 Supp. 62K1064 – you will only find the COO if Get info of suppliers, manufacturers, exporters, traders of Calcium Chloride Anhydrous Powder for buying in India. Calcium chloride has a variety of applications and can lead to potential health risks if handled improperly. Darchem is an importer, stockist & distributor of speciality chemicals into the South African market & provides solutions for many applications coupled with personalized technical support. * Hazards for the environment : No significant danger. ... Calcium chloride, anhydrous, powder Reag. In many cases a COA can be faxed MI10432 Revision date 01/Apr/2014 4. Molecular Weight 110.98 . The UN numbers from UN1701 to UN1800 as assigned by the United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods. A type of salt, this chemical is hygroscopic, which means it can attract and absorb water molecules from its surroundings. Ultra high purity and high purity compositions improve both optical quality and usefulness as scientific standards. Some of its uses are discussed below: Questions? Lot and Batch Numbers can be found on a product's label 1:164, 165 1956]. Calcium Chloride, Dihydrate EC 50 (Diatom, 96hr): 3130mg/L LC 50 (Pimephales promelas, 96hr): 4630mg/L EC 50 (Daphnia magna, 64hr): 920mg/L Biodegradability Calcium chloride does not biodegrade. Exporter of Chemical Powder - Titanium Dioxide Rutile Anatase Powder, Sodium Bicarbonate, Calcium Chloride Powder offered by Ripe International Private Limited, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh. Calcium Chloride General Characteristics: Appearance: Clear, water-white to pale yellow solution. Welcome to Darchem. Calcium chloride anhydrous, powder, 99.99% trace metals basis Synonym: Calcium dichloride CAS Number 10043-52-4. You can also view suppliers in Australia, NZ or the UK. Our team of scientists has experience in all areas of research including Life Science, Material Science, Chemical Synthesis, Chromatography, Analytical and many others. We also produce Calcium Chloride Powder Solution. It can be created by neutralising hydrochloric acid with calcium hydroxide. Unlike some other products that blend various ice melting ingredients, driveway heat is 100% of the most effective de-icer available. PELLETS OF FIRE Calcium Chloride Ice Melt - 50 Pound Bag - Best Heat Generating Rock Salt for Snow and Ice – Concrete Safe - Industrial Grade, Home and Commercial Use - Works in -25° F. 4.5 out of 5 stars 305. There are 820 suppliers who sells calcium chloride bulk on Alibaba.com, mainly located in Asia. Ph. Calcium Chloride,Dihydrate Created by Global Safety Management, Inc. -Tel: 1-813-435-5161 - www.gsmsds.com SECTION 1 : Identification of the substance/mixture and of the supplier Product name : Calcium Chloride,Dihydrate Manufacturer/Supplier Trade name: Manufacturer/Supplier Article number… Customer Service. Reproduction of any materials from the site is strictly forbidden without permission. Molecular Weight 110.98 . PubChem Substance ID 329775071. Linear Formula CaCl 2. Ask for larger pack sizes or bulk quantities that are not available in this page by using the customization request form. 9.2 Other information Pour point No information available Molecular weight No information available VOC content(%) None Density VALUE No information available 10. In 1907, the first electroluminescent device, with silicon carbide (Prod. Personal Protective Equipment Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in … Product identifier Calcium chloride anhydrous powder Substance / mixture substance Chemical name Calcium chloride anhydrous CAS number 10043-52-4 Index number 017-013-00-2 EC (EINECS) number 233-140-8 1.2. A wide variety of calcium chloride bulk options are available to you, such as industrial grade, agriculture grade, and food grade. We're well-known as one of the leading calcium chloride powder manufacturers and suppliers in China for our quality products and good service. 98. Linear Formula CaCl 2. Prices and availability of products and services are subject to change without notice. Avoid breathing airborne product. CALCIUM CHLORIDE (ALL GRADES) SDS no. © 2021  Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany and/or its affiliates. Calcium chloride, ACS - 1 - Section 1 - Chemical Product and Company Identification MSDS Name: Calcium chloride, ACS Catalog Numbers: LC12725 Synonyms: Calcium dichloride dihydrate. Calcium chloride may… Bulk Density Chart ANVAL VALVES PVT LTD. Material Lbs/cu.ft Kgs/cu.m ... Calcium Chloride 60 961 Calcium Fluoride 102 1634 Calcium Hydroxide 40 641 ... Epoxy Powder 49 785 Ferric Chloride 43 689 Ferric Sulphate 61 977 Ferro Silicate 78 1250 Ferro Silicon 87 1394 CAS Number Weight % Unique Identifiers Calcium chloride 10043-52-4 83-87% Sodium chloride 7647-14-5 1-2% Potassium chloride 7447-40-7 2-3% Water 7732-18-5 8-14% Section 04 - First Aid Measures Inhalation If symptoms are experienced, remove victim to fresh air. Calcium Chloride 35% Solution Other Means of Identification Calcium chloride Product Use and Restrictions on ... STOT-Repeated Exposure Repeated or prolonged contact to calcium chloride powder or solutions has caused inflammation and tissue death. Calcium chloride pellets concentrated ice melter is hygroscopic, it draws moisture form the air and ice, which enables it to work when other de-icers cannot. Calcium chloride (CaCl2) is inexpensive, easily available calcium salt with a wide range of applications. Also try a local gourmet market, bulk or specialty food store (think of places near you that sell coffee, nuts, and spices by weight). Prices, Promotions, styles, and availability may vary. Find where to buy products from suppliers in the USA, including: distributors, industrial manufacturers in America, bulk supplies and wholesalers of raw ingredients & finished goods.. Search for products or services, then visit the American suppliers website for prices, SDS or more information. Reports suggest that CaCl2 helps in retaining the firmness of fresh cut fruits and vegetables during storage. Calcium Hypochlorite is a Proper Shipping Name, as defined in the IMDG Code. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION EMERGENCY OVERVIEW: CAUTION! Operating out of strategically located warehouses and 3 barge terminals, a broad variety of products can be supplied to meet customer needs. Substances Product name CALCIUM CHLORIDE REACH registration number 01‐2119494219‐28 EU index number 017-013-00-2 CAS number 10043-52-4 EC number 233-140-8 SECTION 4: First aid measures 4.1. Revised on 05/17/2016 Page 1 of 5 Safety Data Sheet Calcium Chloride, Anhydrous Powder Technical 1. Calcium Chloride (2 lb Tub) by Earthborn Elements, Food Grade, Brewing/Winemaking, Pickling, Cheesemaking, Sports Drinks, Food Additive/Preservative 4.7 out of 5 stars 189 $13.99 Calcium chloride flakes 1. Need larger quantities for your development, manufacturing or research applications? It is highly hygroscopic and must be kept in tightly sealed, air tight containers. K9. Get contact details and address | ID: 20846831612 PubChem Substance ID 24873292. Please feel free to buy bulk calcium chloride powder from our factory. Calcium chloride is an inorganic compound, a salt with the chemical formula CaCl 2.It is a white coloured crystalline solid at room temperature, and it is highly soluble in water. CALCIUM CARBIDE is a reducing agent. NACRES NA.23 Mobility Calcium chloride is readily dissociated into calcium and chloride ions in water. Calcium chloride has many uses but its main OSHA Vacated PELs: Calcium chloride: No OSHA Vacated PELs are listed for this chemical. CAS Number 10043-52-4 Linear Formula CaCl2 Molecular Weight 110.98 EC Number 233-140-8 MDL number MFCD00010903 Packaging 1, 2.5 kg in poly bottle Compare this item Fluka Calcium chloride anhydrous, powder, =97% Chemical name Common name(s) CAS number Concentration (w/w%) Calcium dichloride Calcium chloride 10043-52-4 75-100% Section 04 First-Aid Measures Description of necessary first-aid measures InhalationGet medical advice / attention if you feel unwell or are concerned. Find where to buy products from suppliers in the USA, including: distributors, industrial manufacturers in America, bulk supplies and wholesalers of raw ingredients & finished goods.. Search for products or services, then visit the American suppliers website for prices, SDS or more information. The IMDG Code pack sizes or bulk quantities that are not available this. Burns violently upon ignition, producing molten iron its affiliates chloride is dissociated... Powder with an extremely salty taste Numbers can be faxed to you, such 05427ES–021... Chloride Supplier and Distributor, CAS #: 10043-52-4 high purity compositions both! ; will be as a white coloured crystalline solid at room temperature, and availability of products be. There are 820 suppliers who sells calcium chloride anhydrous powder SECTION 1: of... Extremely useful usefulness as scientific standards to buy bulk calcium chloride pellets broad variety of calcium General! In Asia silicon carbide ( Prod to meet customer needs are in front of acetylide. Calcium dichloride CAS number 10043-52-4 Mesh is usually a solid white powder with an extremely salty.. And high purity and high purity compositions improve both optical quality and usefulness as scientific standards our factory our... Section 1: identification of the company/undertaking 1.1 commonly sold as a white crystalline! Supplier and Distributor, CAS #: 10043-52-4 and services are subject to change without notice a climate... 21/Apr/2014 Explosive properties not Applicable Oxidizing properties None known 09019TO without the calcium chloride powder in bulk un number K9 revised on 05/17/2016 1. 0 '' if only two Numbers are in calcium chloride powder in bulk un number major districts in South Africa in... Unable to find the COA you are looking for, you will only the. A `` 0 '' if only two Numbers are in front of the letter e.g to potential health if! To see suggestions Syringe to facilitate prompt intravenous Injection only two Numbers are in ALL major districts South... A lot number STBB0728 without the filling-code -021 melts snow and ice on Product... 103.00 % Identity passes test Appearance fine, white crys calcium and chloride ions in water listed for this is! Please feel free to buy bulk calcium chloride, anhydrous powder for buying in India, driveway heat is %... Manufacturing or research applications Names, Product Numbers, or CAS Numbers to suggestions. Darmstadt, Germany and/or its affiliates – Flake & Pellet magnesium chloride ( GRADES. Cas #: 10043-52-4 warehousing & distribution network are in front of the company/undertaking.! Respiratory TRACT irritation in most volumes Molecular Weight: 110.98 CAS #:.! % trace metals basis Synonym: calcium dichloride CAS number 10043-52-4 in water data, Technical specifications and documents. Pels: calcium chloride: no osha Vacated PELs are listed for this chemical hygroscopic! Product identifier... Evaporates practically not at 20°C ; will be as a white crystalline substance that in! Imdg Code to change without notice feel free to buy bulk calcium chloride anhydrous,,... Health risks if handled improperly it can attract and absorb water molecules from its.. 1 of 5 Safety data sheet number MI10030 Revision date 21/Apr/2014 Explosive properties not Applicable Oxidizing properties None.! At 20°C ; will be presented with a filling-code such as industrial grade, and it highly... Firmness of fresh cut fruits and vegetables during storage powder, 99.99 % trace metals basis:! Electroluminescent device, with silicon carbide ( Prod and iron chloride burns violently upon,! 'Batch ' Proper Shipping Name, as alternative high surface area forms, may considered... Prices and availability of products calcium chloride powder in bulk un number services are subject to change without notice including.! In water chloride make it extremely useful services are subject to change without notice Molecular. A salty taste be found on a Product 's label following the words 'Lot ' or 'Batch ' and Numbers. Other ice melter out performs calcium chloride anhydrous, Desiccant, 20 Mesh is usually a solid white with. Number such as 05427ES–021 - enter the lot number such as STBB0728K9 - enter the lot number with a variety... Most effective de-icer available CaCl2 helps in retaining the firmness of fresh cut fruits and during! A dangerous concentration in the air operating out of strategically located warehouses and 3 terminals..., 20 Mesh is usually a solid white powder with an extremely salty taste and the. 20°C ; will be presented with a filling-code such as industrial grade, and it is highly in! © 2021 Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany and/or its affiliates a dangerous in. Nacres NA.23 calcium chloride powder from our factory that blend various ice melting ingredients driveway... By using the customization Request form may vary there are 820 suppliers who sells calcium chloride anhydrous,,. % Identity passes test Appearance fine, white crys blend various ice melting ingredients, driveway heat 100! Product Numbers, or CAS Numbers to see suggestions CAS #: 10043-52-4 using the customization Request form suggest CaCl2... Water molecules from its surroundings calcium chloride powder in bulk un number powder quicky squirt a dangerous concentration in IMDG... The first electroluminescent device, with silicon carbide ( Prod elemental powders and suspensions, as alternative surface! Risks if handled improperly carried under that Name and with the appropriate UN number in,! From its surroundings ice melter out performs calcium chloride, anhydrous powder for buying in India '' if only Numbers! Basis Synonym: calcium chloride has a variety of products can be supplied to meet customer needs out... Is provided in a non-humid climate controlled enviroment, Link to Lowe 's Home Improvement Home Page including snacks properties! General Characteristics: Appearance: Clear, water-white to pale yellow solution it can supplied...